# 99 Scala Problems 11 - Modified run-length encoding

By Leonardo Giordani - Updated on

## The problem¶

**P11** (*) Modified run-length encoding.
Modify the result of problem P10 in such a way that if an element has no duplicates it is simply copied into the result list. Only elements with duplicates are transferred as (N, E) terms.

Example:

```
scala> encodeModified(List('a, 'a, 'a, 'a, 'b, 'c, 'c, 'a, 'a, 'd, 'e, 'e, 'e, 'e))
res0: List[Any] = List((4,'a), 'b, (2,'c), (2,'a), 'd, (4,'e))
```

## Initial thoughts¶

The solution shall be a modification of that of problem 10, and the only difference is that this time we do not produce the same type of result for each element.

## Choices¶

If the source element is a list with more than an element, we produce a tuple `(Int, A)`

, where `A`

is the actual type of elements in the list. If the source element is a list with a single element, we just produce that element, so the type is `A`

.

In Scala this situation may be represented by means of `Either`

, `Left`

and `Right`

. Good explanations of this matter may be found here and here.

Given that, the solution is straightforward

```
def encode[A](l: List[A]):List[Either[A, (Int, A)]] = {
utils.packer.pack(l) map {
e => e match {
case e if e.length == 1 => Left(e.head)
case e => Right((e.length, e.head))
}
}
}
```

I prefer to express conditions through pattern matching, but the same code may be expressed with an `if/else`

statement.

## Final considerations¶

This time I learned how to use the three types **Either**, **Left** and **Right**. Reading the suggested posts I also dug into **Option**, **Some** and **None**, and the three similar types introduced with Scala 2.10 **Try**, **Success** and **Failure**.

## Feedback¶

The GitHub issues page is the best place to submit corrections.

## Part 11 of the 99 Scala Problems series

### Previous articles

- 99 Scala Problems 01 - Find the last element of a list
- 99 Scala Problems 02 - Find the last but one element of a list
- 99 Scala Problems 03 - Find the Kth element of a list
- 99 Scala Problems 04 - Find the number of elements of a list
- 99 Scala Problems 05 - Reverse a list
- 99 Scala Problems 06 - Find out whether a list is a palindrome
- 99 Scala Problems 07 - Flatten a nested list structure
- 99 Scala Problems 08 - Eliminate consecutive duplicates of list elements
- 99 Scala Problems 09 - Pack consecutive duplicates of list elements into sublists
- 99 Scala Problems 10 - Run-length encoding of a list.